None of us ever think about the lowly coffee cup yet all of us would be surprised if we come to know of its origin. If you actually want to know the origin of the coffee cup, you would first have to trace the history of the disposable water cup. So that’s how it all started, it started with water.
After the civil war, the temperance movement became popular. Temperance activists started visiting cities and streets, offering people to drink water as a healthier alternative to alcohol. The cities became dotted with fountains which had fresh drinking water.
The cups which were offered were made of metal and was passed around from one person to another. It was the cup used by many to drink water from. Americans were slowly learning about diseases spread through germs. Lawrence Luellen, was a Boston lawyer and inventor who was particularly worried about so many people drinking water from a single cup. In 1907 he invented the disposable water cup. It was no way near to the present day drinking cup but looked more like a small bag.
After the World War One the disposable culture already had a strong foothold in America. This was also the time the Spanish Flu came in, it killed around half a million people. This started the boom in the demand of disposable cups.
The coffee cup origins
We no longer drink coffee or water out of Dixie cups, however the humble water dup was getting a revamped look. Even war beverages were being served in disposable coffee cups. In 1933 a patent was passed in Ohio which asked for a handle to be attached to the pare cups. These cups were meant to mimic mugs. However, the 1960’s saw a revolution in the actual shaping of the coffee cup in the form of the foam cup, the anthora cup, the tear able lid and seven eleven.
People had already started experimenting with polystyrene to be used commercially. Factories were set up which shaped expanded polystyrene into different shapes. For the next twenty years styrene cups were a popular choice for hot beverages like coffee. Times were changing and Americans were turning to lattes and cappuccinos. The signature froth was so very important. It became necessary to design a lid with a dome shape so that the froth remained firmly I its place.
However environmentalists became an in thing in the nineteen eighties. People began to realize that styrene was not an eco-friendly material. It began to be replaced with paper. However the final nail in the coffin for the styrene cups was because of a decision made by star bucks. Since Star Bucks decided to go with paper cups, the styrene cups never made a comeback. And so paper coffee cups were a thing again.
Though several coffee cup designs have evolved since then, the future of the disposable coffee cup is still bright. It is something which we would be seeing a great deal in the future, no matter how many designs or keep sake cups are brought out.
What you need to know about emission control systems
Emission control systems are popular in automobiles where they limit noxious gases emitted after combustion. The gasses are mainly from engines and other components known to cause internal-combustion. Where combustion is suspected, the components in question could include engine exhaust, fuel tank, the crankcase and the carburetor.
You will know whether your car has a working emission control system if it passes the emission test. The test ensures your automobile machine is less harmful to the environment. You will be able to repair damage if you concentrate on finding out what may have caused the fault.
The following are the possible reasons for a failed emission control system:
Worn-Out Spark Plugs
Spark plugs are not expensive car parts as compared to other accessories. Have your vehicle spark plugs inspected regularly to ensure they are up to the task. Replace these plugs when faulty as the effect will not only inconvenience you but will harm the environment.
Leaking Gas Cap
Gas caps are readily available irrespective of your car model or type. This is one of the car parts that you can inspect and replace on your own. A leaking gas cap is pausing danger to our surroundings and its one of the reasons why your car may fail the emission test.
There is no reason why your car should fail the emission test because of a simple part like a gas cap which you can replace with ease. Many car types share the gas cap thus you can get an old working one from your mechanic.
Dirty Air Filter
A dirty or clogged air filter is one of the reasons why your vehicle tests for a higher level of hydrocarbons. Cleaning the air filter is not a hard task as you can easily pop it out of its socket, clean and slide it back. When the filter is extremely dirty or worn-out, get a new one from a car accessory shop and replace it.
Damaged Catalytic Converter
Catalytic converters of your car should be regularly checked for defects. A faulty converter cannot convert the toxic gasses into one that cannot harm the environment. Get your faulty catalytic converters replaced to have working emission control systems.
Faulty Catalytic converters will cause you to be on the wrong side with the public health sector in your area.
Rich Air-Fuel Mixture
Fuel that is mixed with air causes dumping of raw fuel through the automobile system. The rich air-fuel might be caused by faulty oxygen sensors and/or damaged injectors. Get these parts checked and replaced for you to have a working emission control system.
Damages in the Evaporative Emission Control System (EVAP)
A damaged EVAP system can cause atmospheric pollution as gasoline vapors are emitted from your car’s fuel tank. Check the hoses and vents for leakage and repair/replace them so they’re environment friendly.
Automobiles, according to a recent study, are among the leading causes of air pollution. Secure your automobiles emission control systems to improve surrounding air quality and reduce negative impact on the environment.
4×4 accessories are designed for four-wheel drive vehicles to deliver powerful performance under challenging road conditions. The accessories are manufactured for 4WD vehicles but can still be used on a standard vehicle to make it ready for an off-road drive. There are a variety of such accessories on the market; thus you have to be careful to get quality ones.
Buying car accessories can be a complex affair as it’s difficult to tell from the physical looks. To help you narrow down the variety available on the market, here are some simple tips you can follow.
Do Your Research
Getting information about where to buy your car accessories is easy as there are many people ready to share information. Your mechanic can guide you to buy the best 4×4 accessories as mechanics know what is good. You can also contact other car owners especially if they have a vehicle make similar to yours.
A background check on the accessories sellers is also recommendable. Check for reviews from other consumers online.
Buy from Registered Dealers
Genuine 4X4 accessories are not cheap especially when buying from a car dealer. Buying a cheap accessory can cost you later or expose you and your car to fatal accidents. Substandard wheels, shock absorbers, brake pads and the like can cost you your life as they secure a car to some extent.
You can be able to tell whether a dealer is registered through checking their certificates. UV4x4 is a certified reseller. Get more information about the seller on online platforms and through other road safety departments.
Get More Quotes
Price comparison when it comes to 4×4 accessories is recommendable. You will get some dealers selling the same accessory but at unreasonable prices. Take your time and shop around a number of accessory shops to get a good deal.
Comparing prices from a different dealer will also help you gain more knowledge about your car accessories. You will get to know the difference between the original parts and generic ones as they are all available. A number of vehicle accessories dealers are ready to share information to win your trust and get to sell to you.
Check the Condition of the Accessory
You will get accessories with visible scratches and other defects on them being sold at the same price as others. Since accessories are not cheap, chances are high that you will get old parts refurbished and sold to unsuspecting clients. With the help of your mechanic, you will be able to tell whether a part is in a stable condition or not.
It is possible to get some accessories with few scratches on the paint. Do not miss buying a rather good accessory that may have been scratched during transportation or storage. If the accessory is good, use the condition to bargain for a better price.
4X4 accessories can help you drive in a rather rough road or places that are challenging. Investing in good wheels, shock absorbers, brake pads will not only make your car comfortable but also safe to use. The availability of these accessories will make you turn your car into a comfortable, safe, secure, and one meeting your standards.
A champion of energy efficiency. Even before this new market was well identified, Schneider Electric had begun to expand its activities to growth markets, notably by offering its industrial customers more efficiency and energy savings. Ten years and some 130 buyouts later, the French group plays in the big leagues. Another champion of energy efficiency, not for processes, but for buildings: the venerable Saint-Gobain, which celebrates its 350 years, and has reorganized in recent years around the concept of sustainable housing . For its CEO Pierre-André de Chalendar, energy performance is a growth driver in mature economies, where the group generates 80% of its turnover.
It will be understood that the industry did not wait for the (too) long maturation of the energy transition bill to call into question its energy consumption. Had she not done so, the prospect of substantial savings will help her take the plunge. By 2030, French industry could reduce its energy intensity by 20%, according to the calculations of the Environment Agency for Energy Management (Ademe). Between 2000 and 2012 alone, it dropped by just over 11%. 2015 will be a pivotal year. So far, investing in energy efficiency has been a voluntary move to reduce costs. From now on, it will also be to avoid surcharges related to penalties. Some 5,000 medium-sized companies and large companies will have to carry out a first energy audit of their sites before the end of the year.
Without waiting for this obligation, many industrialists have undertaken to make their energy consumption more flexible by controlling it more finely and by giving them the means to anticipate it. With great strokes of instrumentation, predictive software and supervision tools … They are thus preparing for the smart grid and the dynamic pricing of electricity that will succeed the regulated tariffs in 2016. Good examples are not lacking in the pages that follow!
Improve the energy efficiency of his plant, no one is against it. But how ? Where to start ? What is the gain? Industrialists are often in limbo. “However, we are witnessing a revolution,” says Jean-Pierre Riche, chairman of the consultant Okavango Energy, ” Energy is one of the levers of competitiveness, like quality in the 1990s.” Energy performance must be integrated into industrial management. ” With his Leanergy method, Okavango applies lean to energy. “It all starts with the product, we will eliminate any energy consumption, which does not bring value to the product,” explains Jean-Pierre Riche.
This approach, which involves an exhaustive audit and without prejudice, allows to question, if necessary, the process to better target waste. A dairy takes milk at 6 ° C to pasteurize at 80 ° C and skim it at 40 ° C. It is then cooled and stored at 6 ° C. When it needs to be turned into cheese, it is reheated to 40 ° C. “This intermediate step at 6 ° C, which costs energy to warm the milk, comes from a buffer stock, but it is useless for all the milk to be treated this way.” The buffer was reduced to a minimum and the essential milk now skips the stage to 6 ° C “ , explains Jean-Pierre Riche.
Better thinking about the product and its needs also causes a reversal of perspective, while energy efficiency actions usually go through the optimization of technical equipment. A boiler produces steam at 100-150 ° C to heat water at 60 ° C, used in a duck slaughter process. “Installing a smoke collector on the boiler would have improved its energy performance, with a good return on investment, but it would have been money lost since the product does not need steam. cost effective to replace the boiler with a heat pump heating the water to 60 ° C “, says Jean-Pierre Riche. Lean tools rely on the management of industrial sites. By relying in particular on the saturation of the capacities.
A method of industry to improve its energy performance
From the product.
Lean applied to energy has a basic principle: to eliminate any energy consumption that does not bring value to the product. An audit can identify the strict needs of the process and track down the quality and performance.Drive the change.
Maximizing energy performance requires a transformation of the company’s practices. The tools and the language of the lean allow to accompany it to put in place very profitable actions on the exploitation.
Measure the performance.
To carry out an action plan and sustain gains, it is necessary to measure the real energy performance of its production. Indicators based on 6-sigma principles isolate the influencing factors.
“We must try to saturate if possible the most energy-intensive equipment to maximize energy performance,” says Jean-Pierre Riche. This electrical contact manufacturer had two air dryers on all the time. “By analyzing consumption, capacity and needs, Okavango has shown that one of the two was mainly used for backup,” says the operations manager of the site , “now only one dryer remains on. Toggle allows you to use it when needed. ” In an agro-food site, four cold rooms were used without ever being saturated. After a reorganization of flows and storage, only two are now used.